A summary is a short version of a longer piece of writing. It is summarising and explaining original text. It can be oral or written. It requires:

  • A clear thinking
  • Analysing reading and listening skills
  • Punctual and objective expressing skills

A summary is objective, independent and short version of the original text. A content of summary depend on

  • An aspect and emphasis of an original text
  • A usage of a summary

Sometimes it is useful to make a summary about a research, presentation or book just for yourself.

Advices for summarising text:

  1. Firstly, skim the text. Read the abstract, introduction, conclusion and headings. This gives you an overview of what you are about to read
  2. Read the original in one sitting, and try to understand the main subject. You should be able to answer for the questions:
    • What was text about?
    • What was the emphasis of it?
  3. Study it paragraph by paragraph and make a list of the content of the text. The relevance of an individual paragraph will be signalled by topic sentences. Make topic sentences of each paragraph.
  4. Do not just write down all the topic sentences in their original order but also select, prune, connect and organize. Consider questions of relationships and priority. Keep in mind the purpose of the summary.
  5. Pay attention to the style of the summary. Keep it relevant. The summary should be written in your own words.
  6. Present the references carefully.

Remember! Summary must keep the idea of the original text. It does not include opinions and beliefs of a writer.