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REFERENCES AND LIST OF REFERENCES


Format of a reference
List of references
An article as a source
An electronic source


Source refers to material in the form of printed text (e.g. books, articles and websites) and non-printed form (e.g. lectures, interviews), which has been mad eus e of when producing one’s own text. The sources used must be indicated both in the text and in the list of references.

Source references indicate where a particular source has been used in the written work. The purpose of references in the text is to enable the reader of the text to distinguish between the author’s own contributions and that which has been borrowed or summarised from elsewhere. The references in the text refer to the information in the list of references, which the reader can refer to when wishing to find more detailed bibliographic information.

All the sources and only the sources used by the author in his/her work are to be entered in the list of references. A reference has to provide precise information on the source so that it can be easily found in the lis tof references.

The basic rules related to referencing are set out below. Further information is to be found in the cited literature (Kajaani UAS instructions, see Lappalainen) and in the Thesis website.

NOTE! Referring means making an indirect quotation, explaining the information of the source in one’s own words.

Direct borrowing is when you use direct quotations. Direct quotations should be used only when you have a very good reason for doing so and without going to excesses!

For example:
Making a reference: The way you write has evolved in the course of your life history (Alasilta 1999, 17).

Direct quotation: According to Alasilta, “the way you write has evolved to its present form gradually - in the course of years and decades” (1999, 17).

The reference in the text refers to the source used in the text and the source’s more detailed information has been recorded in the list of references.

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Format of a reference

There are many ways of indicating references and they vary by field and publisher. The practice at Kajaani UAS the is for references to be indicated in connection with the quoated section, at the end of the paragraph. The idea with references is to keep them compact and yet precise in appearance. References need to indicate the pages of the source where the specified information is from. However, this is not always possible; e.g. when an entire research work is being referred to.

The main principle in the marking of references is set out in the following diagram:

Author's surname + year when printed + possible pages

For example:
The structure of news can be described by means of an upright triangle (Alasilta 1999, 93).

If there is no writer then use the owner of the website.

For example:
The table on benchmark government bond issues contains selected loan-related data (Bank of Finland 2009).

Other rules:

The word and is used between the names of two authors (or between the last two authors if there are more than two) if the authors have been mentioned in the text itself.
The character & is used between the names of two authors (or between the last two authors if there are more than two) if the authors have been mentioned inside parentheses.
For example:
In the text: Czinkota and Ronkainen (1995)...
In the end of the sentence or paragraph: (Czinkota and Ronkainen 1995, 28)

If there are three or more authors when mentioning them for the first time, then the names of each author are listed. When referring to the same source later in the text, it is enough to mention the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year and page number.
For example:
For the first time: (Stone, Woodcock & Marchtynger 2000, 231.)
Later: (Stone et al. 2000, 243.)

If reference is made to a single sentence, the reference will be inserted before the fullstop of the sentence. If reference is made to more than one sentence, the reference will be inserted after the last sentence of the reference.

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List of references

The list of references is a list of the sources which have been used in writing and the list is placed at the end of the work with the references in alphabetical order. The sources are to be entered in the list of references as per the following model:

Who? When? What? Where?
Writer + year when published + title + where printed & publisher

For example:
Palmer, A. 2001. Principles of services marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Other rules:

If there are two authors, the & character will be used between the names.
For example:
Czinkota, M. R. & Ronkainen, I. A. 1995 International Marketing. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

If there are three or more , the names will be separated by commas, and the last two names will be separated by the & character.
For examle:
Stone, M., Woodcock, N. & Machtynger L. 2000. Customer relationship marketing get to know your customers and win their loyalty. London: Kogan page.

The same author's publications need to be arranged from the oldest to the newest.
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An article as a source

The details of a newspaper or journal article are to be given in the list of references as follows:

Who? When? What? Where?
Writer + year when published + title + publishing channel *

* publication’s name, number and edition, and page numbers

For example:

Romer, P. 1993. Idea gaps and object gaps in economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 32, 543 - 573.

An article in a compilation work, i.e. an edited work:


Kasvio, A. 2001. The Emergence of "Information Society" as a Major Social Scientific Research Programme. In E. Karvonen (ed.) Informal Societies. Understanding the Third Industrial Revolution. Tampere: Tampere University Press.

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An electronic source

An electronic source is indicated in the same way as other sources. The one difference is that the source details must also mention when it was read.

Who? When? What? Where? When read?
Writer + year when published + title + Available at: website (Read dd.mm.yy).

If there is no writer then use the owner of the website.

For example:

Nyström, S. 2004. Projektioppimisen työkalupakki. Available at: http://www.kajak.fi/ opiskelu/ koulutus/oppimisprosessityökalut/index.htm (Read 11.10.2008).

Bank of Finland. 2009. Securities markets. Available at: http://www.bof.fi/en/tilastot/arvopaperimarkkinat/index.htm (Read 11.2.2009).